Herculaneum was a Roman town destroyed by volcanic flows from Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D., located in the territory of today's commune of Ercolano, in the Italian region of Campania.

It is famous as one of the few ancient cities that can now be seen in almost its original splendour, because unlike Pompeii, its burial was deep enough to ensure the upper storeys of buildings remained intact, and the hotter ash preserved wooden household objects such as beds and doors and even food.

Herculaneum was a more affluent town than Pompeii with a high density of fine houses that were lavishly cladded with coloured marble. In recent years the discovery around 300 skeletons along the seashore, came as a shock since it was thought that the town itself had been mainly evacuated.